Archive for October, 2008

Free Tips on Cloves

Friday, October 31st, 2008

Cloves were introduced into Zanzibar early in the nineteenth century. Tidbury (1949) gives the probable date of 1818, but later (unpublished) he says 1805.

A Zanzibar Arab, Harameli bin Saleh, said to have been banished by the Sultan for the crime of murder, is thought to have been the servant of a French officer and to have obtained the seeds in Reunion. These he presented to the Sultan, Sayyid Said bin Sultan, and so obtained his pardon. The first plants were grown near the royal palace of Mtoni, 6 km north of the town of Zanzibar, with later and more extensive plantings at Kizimbani.

When the Sultan, a man of great courage, energy and foresight, realized the potential economic value of the crop, he forced plantation owners in Zanzibar to plant cloves under the threat of confiscation of their land if they did not do so. Large areas were planted in both the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, helped no doubt by the availability of the large number of slaves, the abolition of which did not take place in the Protectorate until 1897

Know The Edge Of Champion Construction

Thursday, October 30th, 2008

To those are already familiar with sunroom construction, they have probably heard about Champion sunroom. This is known as one of the founding members of the National Sunroom Association and boasts of producing only the top quality materials when it comes to sunroom construction. Aside from this, Champion has always put a big grin on their customers’ faces because of the excellent service they offer. Their many years of service in the market have given them enough experience to know the needs of their customers.

To perfectly deliver service to its long list of patrons, Champion has factory showrooms located in Cincinnati and Denver. However, their products reached other parts of the country. This can be only made possible through the reputation and credibility the company has developed. Patio rooms or porch enclosure is one of the products offered by Champion when it comes to building a sunroom. In the early days, Champion only offers patio rooms that are meant to be enjoyed during the three seasons and are not made for year round enjoyment. But as the years progress, the company can now provide homeowners with All Season Vinyl Room Patio. In other words, this allows them to take advantage of enjoying an outdoor atmosphere without compromising their comfort and security. Aside from this, other products offered by this reputable company includes awnings, sunroom furniture and porch enclosures. These products are not only made from high quality materials but they will surely help you achieve the level of enjoyment you truly desire in a sunroom.

Cloves Oil

Wednesday, October 29th, 2008

Recently, it was established at the Institut de la Recherche Agronomiques de Madagascar (a Government organization), that the dark colour of the oil was due to iron eugenates.

Here there are 12 stainless steel steam stills (including tubular condensers and separators), each holding about 680 kg of stems; distillation lasts for 16 hours, yielding from 5 to 7 per cent of almost water- white oil. This colour darkens to yellow, sometimes violet-tinted, as the oil ages. The eugenol content of the oil is usually from 90 to 95 per cent.

In Indonesia (Deinum, 1949), this occurs likewise, no doubt, and this practice should be discouraged. Distillation tests carried out in Indonesia at the Laboratory for Scientific Research, at Buitenzorg, have showed that both fresh and fallen leaves yield, on steam distillation, an oil of good composition, and Van der Meulen (1940), working in collaboration with the Laboratory, investigated the practical possibility of distilling oil from fallen leaves. The oil content of fresh clove leaves is no higher than that from fallen leaves, and for this reason distillation from fallen leaves is to be preferred.

Processing Cloves

Tuesday, October 28th, 2008

The young trees bear a small quantity of cloves when they are 4 to 5 years old, but take 20 years or more to attain full hearing. Thereafter, if they remain healthy, they will continue to give good crops for another 50 years or so. Bearing between years shows much variation.

Over-ripe cloves, which have begun to swell below the calyx lobes, should be excluded, as should gleanings of fallen flowers after the petals and stamens have fallen. When stemming is completed the cloves are measured, as, in Zanzibar, the pickers are usually paid on the quantity harvested.

A strong picker can reap as much as 55 kg of green cloves in a good day. Experienced and able supervision is usually required at all stages of harvesting. The day after harvesting, the process of drying the cloves is initiated. This operation is described in the ‘Processing and manufacture’ section. Dry cloves weigh one-third the weight of green, freshly harvested cloves.

Pimento End Products

Monday, October 27th, 2008

Pimento oleoresin is prepared exclusively in the Western European and North American consuming centres, and on a very small scale. The tendency for oleoresins to supersede ground spices in food manufacture has not been as evident in the case of pimento as with other spices such as pepper, ginger and nutmeg.

Valsa eugeniae Nutman & Roberts, which is believed to cause the sudden-death disease of clove trees in Zanzibar, is often associated with die-back in Jamaica, but there is no evidence that it is parasitic on pimento.

Pimento berry oil, which is distilled mainly but not exclusively in the Western European and North American consuming centres, contains all the odour principles of the ground spice and the oleoresin but lacks some of the flavour principles.

The disease is widely distributed, but of rare occurrence outside the coastal areas of the north coast. The role of insects is obscure, but Cylindera flava has been found in some of the trees; all trees showed evidence of mechanical injury at the point of infection. The disease can be controlled by careful pruning and removal of the infected limbs, together with the application of white lead paint.

Spring Garden Preparation

Sunday, October 26th, 2008

Gardening is a funny hobby, in that people either can’t get enough of it, or they don’t know a hoe from a rake! For those of you who already have your gardening catalogs dog-eared, from frequent perusals, you probably can’t wait to get outside and get things going for spring. Garden preparation can be some of the heaviest work of the season, but pays off when the seeds start sprouting and the rose bushes begin to leaf out. However, it’s also important to busy yourself with the right spring garden preparation tasks first. Even some experienced gardeners lose patience, waiting for spring to come and begin digging and adding amendments too early, which can lead to an inferior soil structure and fewer blooms! Let’s take a look at how to approach your spring garden preparations to optimize your results during the warm season.

Cloves Fruits

Saturday, October 25th, 2008

The seedling produces a pronounced tap root which remains relatively short and is fairly quickly replaced by two or three primary sinkers which develop from it. During the first year, a mass of fibrous roots spread out from the tap root to a depth of about 25 cm and a radius of 36-50 cm.

During the second year, the primary sinkers descend a further 50 cm or so and several fibrous roots of the surface plate thicken to become the main horizontal laterals. These extend in subsequent years and may reach a radius of 10 m or so. They become greatly thickened, while a number of slender secondary sinkers develop from them to a depth of 7 m or so. The roots of neighbouring trees overlap and natural grafting may occur. The surface plate of roots extends to a radius of approximately the same distance as the height of the tree.

Manuring Pimento

Friday, October 24th, 2008

The extensive method of growing the crop in Jamaica usually entails very little care and attention to the pimento trees. The larger weeds in the pasture in which it grows may be controlled from time to time by cutlassing. The branches cut from the trees during harvesting may be put round the trees as a rough mulch.

The time and extent of flowering is affected by the local conditions and climate, particularly the time of onset of the spring rains, so that the time of harvesting varies between seasons and places. It normally occurs from July to September, but may be later.

With the provision of seedlings, and later of vegetatively propagated clonal material, improved attention should be paid to the cultivation of the crop. By the use of the correct spacing the trees should he given enough space to develop low branches and some early training of the trees should be possible. Care during the early years of growth is essential if good trees which yield early and abundantly are to be produced. The trees should be circle-weeded and mulching may be an advantage.

Factors Influencing the Quality of Pimento

Thursday, October 23rd, 2008

Microbiological contamination of the spice largely results from the long ‘fermentation’ process and the length of time required for sun-drying during which the berries are exposed to the elements. Contamination can be minimized by preventing the berries from coming into contact with the soil during harvest and handling and by drying on suitable raised racks. The problems of infection by micro-organisms and mould formation are greatly reduced if the berries are dried by artificial means. The temperature of drying must be carefully controlled, however, and it should not exceed 75 C since at higher temperatures loss of volatile oil by evaporation can ensue. Artificial drying of the berries by exposure to smoke from a wood fire can detract from the aroma of the spice.

Jamaican pimento sets the standard for quality and it possesses the best appearance, aroma and flavour, and volatile-oil content 4-4.5 per cent). The dried berries range in size from about 6.5 to 9.5 mm in diameter and there are approximately 13 berries per gram. The spice from this source is the only type which is used for distillation of pimento berry oil.

Pimento Plantation

Wednesday, October 22nd, 2008

The simplest and traditional method of establishing a pimento walk or semi-wild plantation in Jamaica was to use self-sown seedlings or seeds which had been distributed by birds, which sprang up along fences and in thickets, where they obtained protection from livestock, from the sun and drying winds. The seedlings were then preserved at a spacing of about 6 m when the land was cleared and put down to pasture.

Hope, Jamaica in apparent isolation, bore fruits; seedlings from it, presumably S have been planted. A seedling characterized by narrow leaf blades, known as pepper- leaf type, has been planted for observation; seedling trees produced small berries with a low oil content. A dwarf strain is also reported. A lemon-scented pimento was discovered growing at Williamsfield, Manchester, Jamaica and has been propagated for establishment of an observation plot.

Adams (1972) gives this as a distinct species P. jamaicensis (Britton & Harris) Proctor. Clonal trials were undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture, Jamaica, in collaboration with the Tropical Products Institute (1968 -72) when some 200 clones were examined for tree berry yield and berry-oil content. The volatile-oil content was found to range from 2 to 7 per cent.